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科学速读法:20分钟让你阅读速度提高3倍

来源:英文翻译   作者:翻译  时间:2009-08-05  阅读:

科学速读法:20分钟让你阅读速度提高3倍

How much more could you get done if you completed all of your required reading in 1/3 or 1/5 the time?

Increasing reading speed is a process of controlling fine motor movement—period.

This post is a condensed overview of principles I taught to undergraduates at Princeton University in 1998 at a seminar called the “PX Project”. The below was written several years ago, so it’s worded like Ivy-Leaguer pompous-ass prose, but the results are substantial. In fact, while on an airplane in China two weeks ago, I helped Glenn McElhose increase his reading speed 34% in less than 5 minutes.

I have never seen the method fail. Here’s how it works…

The PX Project

The PX Project, a single 3-hour cognitive experiment, produced an average increase in reading speed of 386%.

It was tested with speakers of five languages, and even dyslexics were conditioned to read technical material at more than 3,000 words-per-minute (wpm), or 10 pages per minute. One page every 6 seconds. By comparison, the average reading speed in the US is 200-300 wpm (1/2 to 1 page per minute), with the top 1% of the population reading over 400 wpm…

If you understand several basic principles of the human visual system, you can eliminate inefficiencies and increase speed while improving retention.

To perform the exercises in this post and see the results, you will need: a book of 200+ pages that can lay flat when open, a pen, and a timer (a stop watch with alarm or kitchen timer is ideal). You should complete the 20 minutes of exercises in one session.

First, several definitions and distinctions specific to the reading process:

A) Synopsis: You must minimize the number and duration of fixations per line to increase speed.

You do not read in a straight line, but rather in a sequence of saccadic movements (jumps). Each of these saccades ends with a fixation, or a temporary snapshot of the text within you focus area (approx. the size of a quarter at 8? from reading surface). Each fixation will last ¼ to ½ seconds in the untrained subject. To demonstrate this, close one eye, place a fingertip on top of that eyelid, and then slowly scan a straight horizontal line with your other eye-you will feel distinct and separate movements and periods of fixation.

B) Synopsis: You must eliminate regression and back-skipping to increase speed.

The untrained subject engages in regression (conscious rereading) and back-skipping (subconscious rereading via misplacement of fixation) for up to 30% of total reading time.

C) Synopsis: You must use conditioning drills to increase horizontal peripheral vision span and the number of words registered per fixation.

Untrained subjects use central focus but not horizontal peripheral vision span during reading, foregoing up to 50% of their words per fixation (the number of words that can be perceived and “read” in each fixation).

The Protocol

You will 1) learn technique, 2) learn to apply techniques with speed through conditioning, then 3) learn to test yourself with reading for comprehension.

These are separate, and your adaptation to the sequencing depends on keeping them separate. Do not worry about comprehension if you are learning to apply a motor skill with speed, for example. The adaptive sequence is: technique ‘ technique with speed ‘ comprehensive reading testing.

As a general rule, you will need to practice technique at 3x the speed of your ultimate target reading speed. Thus, if you currently read at 300 wpm and your target reading speed is 900 wpm, you will need to practice technique at 1,800 words-per-minute, or 6 pages per minute (10 seconds per page).

We will cover two main techniques in this introduction:

1) Trackers and Pacers (to address A and B above)

2) Perceptual Expansion (to address C)

First – Determining Baseline

To determine your current reading speed, take your practice book (which should lay flat when open on a table) and count the number of words in 5 lines. Divide this number of words by 5, and you have your average number of words-per-line.

Example: 62 words/5 lines = 12.4, which you round to 12 words-per-line

Next, count the number of text lines on 5 pages and divide by 5 to arrive at the average number of lines per page. Multiply this by average number of words-per-line, and you have your average number of words per page.

Example: 154 lines/5 pages = 30.8, rounded to 31 lines per page x 12 words-per-line = 372 words per page

Mark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly-do not read faster than normal, and read for comprehension. After exactly one minute, multiply the number of lines by your average words-per-line to determine your current words-per-minute (wpm) rate.

Second – Trackers and Pacers

Regression, back-skipping, and the duration of fixations can be minimized by using a tracker and pacer. To illustrate the importance of a tracker-did you use a pen or finger when counting the number of words or lines in above baseline calculations? If you did, it was for the purpose of tracking-using a visual aid to guide fixation efficiency and accuracy. Nowhere is this more relevant than in conditioning reading speed by eliminating such inefficiencies.

For the purposes of this article, we will use a pen. Holding the pen in your dominant hand, you will underline each line (with the cap on), keeping your eye fixation above the tip of the pen. This will not only serve as a tracker, but it will also serve as a pacer for maintaining consistent speed and decreasing fixation duration. You may hold it as you would when writing, but it is recommended that you hold it under your hand, flat against the page.

1) Technique (2 minutes):

Practice using the pen as a tracker and pacer. Underline each line, focusing above the tip of the pen. DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of 1 second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than 1 second per line.

2) Speed (3 minutes):

Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than ½ second (2 lines for a single “one-one-thousand”). Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. ½ second per line for 3 minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.

Third – Perceptual Expansion

If you focus on the center of your computer screen (focus relating to the focal area of the fovea in within the eye), you can still perceive and register the sides of the screen. Training peripheral vision to register more effectively can increase reading speed over 300%. Untrained readers use up to ½ of their peripheral field on margins by moving from 1st word to last, spending 25-50% of their time “reading” margins with no content.

To illustrate, let us take the hypothetical one line: “Once upon a time, students enjoyed reading four hours a day.” If you were able to begin your reading at “time” and finish the line at “four”, you would eliminate 6 of 11 words, more than doubling your reading speed. This concept is easy to implement and combine with the tracking and pacing you’ve already practiced.

1) Technique (1 minute):

Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin 1 word in from the first word of each line, and end 1 word in from the last word.

DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of 1 second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than 1 second per line.

2) Technique (1 minute):

Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin 2 words in from the first word of each line, and end 2 words in from the last word.

3) Speed (3 minutes):

Begin at least 3 words in from the first word of each line, and end 3 words in from the last word. Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than ½ second (2 lines for a single “one-one-thousand”).

Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. ½ second per line for 3 minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.

Fourth – Calculate New WPM Reading Speed

Mark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly- Read at your fastest comprehension rate. Multiply the number of lines by your previously determined average words-per-line to get determine your new words-per-minute (wpm) rate.

Congratulations on completing your cursory overview of some of the techniques that can be used to accelerate human cognition (defined as the processing and use of information).

Final recommendations: If used for study, it is recommended that you not read 3 assignments in the time it would take you to read one, but rather, read the same assignment 3 times for exposure and recall improvement, depending on relevancy to testing.

Happy trails, page blazers.

 

如果只用原来三分之一甚至五分之一的时间完成阅读任务,那能多做多少其他的事情啊?

提高阅读速度就是控制精细运动机能,别无他法。

1998年,我在普林斯顿大学给本科生开过一门研修课“PX 项目”,本文简要介绍一下当年课程里的一些原则。以下的内容是几年前写的,所以还有点传统名校自命不凡的味道,不过教学的效果还是相当显著。事实上,两个星期前在去中国的飞机上,我用了不到五分钟就帮我的朋友格林·麦克艾尔侯斯把他的阅读速度提高了34%。

我的方法屡试不爽。具体如下。。。

PX项目

这个项目由一个三小时的认知试验构成,能把阅读速度平均提高386%。

我们测试过的人来自五种不同的语言背景,其中还包括有阅读障碍的人。我们通过实验让这些人能够以每分钟 3,000字以上的速度阅读技术文献,或者说能够每分钟读十页,读一页只需要六秒钟。和他们相比,美国人的平均阅读速度是每分钟200-300字 (1/2到1页),有1%顶尖的人能每分钟阅读 400字。

只要弄明白人类视觉系统的几个基本原则,就能够消除低效率提高速度改善记忆。

要做本文建议的练习,看到成效,需要:一本200页以上的书,而且打开时能平摊在桌面上。笔、计时器(闹钟或者厨房用计时器最好)。20分钟的练习必须一次完成.

首先,关于阅读过程的几个定义和分类:

一) 概要: 减少每行的注视次数,缩短注视时间以提高阅读速度。

阅读并非沿直线进行,而是一连串的扫视加跳跃。每次扫视要么以注视结束,要么就是对注视范围内文字短暂快照(大约25美分硬币那么大,距离阅读表面8? )。 未经训练的人每次注视持续1/4到1/2秒。要弄明白这一点,闭上一只眼,手指轻轻的放在眼皮上。用另一只眼睛慢慢的扫描一条水平直线——这样你会感觉到明显、分离的眼球运动和注视持续的时间。

二) 概要:去除回头读和跳回读以提高速度.
未经训练的人总是回头读(有意识回读)和跳回读(通过不正确的注视实现的下意识回读),这些占用全部阅读时间的30%。

三) 概要: 必须反复做适应练习来扩大水平边缘视线范围,提高每次注视的字数

未经训练的人阅读的时候会注视中央区域,而不会利用水平边缘视线,浪费了50%每次注视可以辨识的字。

操作过程

1) 学习技巧 2) 学会在适应练习里把技巧和速度相结合, 3)学会自我测试阅读理解。

这几步要分开,整个适应过程也取决于能否把这几个部分分开。比如说,学习快速运用肌体运动机能的时候,就不需要担心理解的问题。适应过程如下:技巧、技巧加速度、理解性阅读测试.

一条普遍规律就是,练习技巧的时候,要以3倍于最终目标阅读速度进行。也就是说,如果现速度每分钟300字,目标是 900字,那么练习速度就是1800字或者说每分钟 6页(即十秒一页).

这里我们介绍两条主要技巧:

1) 跟踪和定速(针对前面的一和二)
2) 提高感知能力 (针对三)

第一步---确定起步点

要知道自己目前的阅读速度,拿出练习书 (平摊在桌面上),选五行,数字数,计算平均每行的字数。

例如:五行共62个字,62除以5就是每行12.4个字,四舍五入每行12个字。

下面,选五页查行数,计算平均每页的行数。把平均字数与平均行数相乘即是每页平均字数.

例如:五页共154行,154除以5即平均每页30.8行, 四舍五入每页 31 行,乘以每行 12个字即得每页372 个字。

在第一行上作记号,计时器计一分钟——不要超过平常的阅读速度,要以理解为目的去读。一分钟之后,用每行平均字数乘以你读完的行数就得到了目前的每分钟阅读字数。

第二步 —— 跟踪和定速

利用跟踪器和定速器尽量减少有意识和无意识回读,缩短注视持续时间。首先看看跟踪器的重要性——计算当前阅读速度的时候,你有没有用笔或者手指头数字数或者数行数?如果用了,那就是追踪——利用视觉方法帮助引导注视效率和准确性。在控制阅读速度练习里来根除这种低效做法再恰当不过了。

为了本文描述方便,我们用支笔来说明。用平时写字的那只手握笔,在每一行下面画线(不要拿掉笔帽),眼睛紧盯笔尖上方。这样笔就不仅是一个追踪器,而且还是定速器,能帮助维持恒定的速度,同时还能缩短注视时间。可以以写字的姿势握笔,不过最好还是把笔握在手下面,让笔平贴纸面.

1) 技巧 (2 分钟):

练习用笔作追踪器和定速器。在每一行下面画线,注视笔尖上方。不要担心理解的问题。每行最多读1秒钟,之后每页逐渐加快速度。坚持读,但是每行绝对不能超过1秒钟。

2) 速度 (3 分钟):

重复练习上面的技巧,现在每行读不超过半秒 (用说“万万千百万”几个字的时间读两行字)。有的人可能什么都没看懂, 这是很自然的。保持速度和技巧——现在是在调整感知反应,这个速度练习旨在帮助你的系统适应快速阅读。不要减速,保持每行半秒,读3分钟。注视笔的上方,注意技巧加速度。专心练习,别走神。

第三步 扩大感知范围

盯着电脑显示器的中心(相对于视网膜中央位置的注视区域),你仍然看得到感知得到屏幕的四边。训练边缘视线有效收集视像可以把阅读速度提高到原来的3倍。未经训练的人阅读的时候视线从第一个字移动到最后一个字,1/2的边缘视线放在了页边上,这样25-50%的时间都浪费在一个字都没有的空白上了。

下面举例说明。假设有这么一行字: “从前,学生每天用4小时快乐阅读。” 如果你能从“学”开始读,到“4”结束,那么14个字就少读了8个, 阅读速度加快一倍还多。这一点很容易实施也很容易和之前练习过的追踪定速结合.

1) 技巧 (1分钟):

用笔追踪并定速,保持一行一秒的速度。每行一头一尾都跳过一个字。

不要担心理解的问题。每行最多用1秒钟,之后每页加快速度。坚持读,但是每行绝对不能超过1秒钟。

2) 技巧 (1分钟):

用笔追踪定速保持每行1秒。每行开头和结尾都跳过两个字。

3) 速度 (3分钟):

现在每行开头结尾都至少跳过3个字。重复练习,每行不超过半秒 (每两行的时间不超过说“万万千百万”的时间).

有的人可能什么都没看懂,这也没什么奇怪的。保持速度技巧——这是在调试感知反应系统,这个速度练习旨在帮助你的系统适应快速阅读。不要降低速度,以每行半秒的速度读3分钟,注视笔的上方,注意技巧加速度。集中注意力做练习,不要走神儿。

第四步—— 计算新的阅读速度(每分钟阅读字数)

在第一行上作记号, 用计时器计一分钟——用最快的理解速度阅读。读过的行数乘上之前算出来的每行字数就是你最新的阅读速度(以每分钟阅读字数表示)

到此为止,几项技巧的粗略教程就完成了,祝贺!这些技巧可以加快人的认知过程 (即对信息的处理和使用)。

最后几点建议: 如果是为了学习,就不要试图用读一篇文章的时间读三篇不同的文章。应该把一篇文章读三遍,以测试的相关度为准,多读几遍可以增加与文章接触也可以检查是否每次都有提高。

书山开拓者们,探索愉快!

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